Journal of Applied and Natural Science 6 (2): 898-903 (2014)
Zinc in relation to type 1 and type 2 diabetes: An overview.
Department of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Home Science, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi- 284128, (U.P), INDIA
Abstract : In type 1 diabetes, there is a lack of insulin production and in type 2, diabetes resistances to the
effects of insulin are predominant. Both type 1 and type 2 have the same long-term complications. Diabetes
effects zinc homeostasis in many ways, although it is most probably the hyperglycemia which is responsible for the
increased urinary loss and decreases in total body zinc. The role of Zn deficiency exacerbates the
cytokine-induced damage in the autoimmune attack which destroys the islet cell in type 1 diabetes, is unclear.
Since Zn plays a clear role in the synthesis, storage and secretion of insulin as well as conformational integrity of
insulin in the hexameric form, the decreased Zn, which affects the ability of the islet cell to produce and secrete
insulin in type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction in diabetes may be related to increased
intracellular oxidants and free radicals associated with decrease in intracellular Zn and in Zn dependent antioxidant
enzymes. There appears to be a complex interrelationship between Zn and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Zn
plays a key role in the cellular antioxidative defense. Dysfunctional zinc signaling is associated with a number of
chronic disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. Cellular
homeostasis requires mechanisms that tightly control the uptake, storage, and distribution of zinc. This is achieved
through the coordinated actions of zinc transporters and metallothioneins.
Keywords : Antioxidants, Homeostasis, Hyperglycemia, Juvenile, Zinc.