Journal of Applied and Natural Science 5 (1): 1-4 (2013)
Ultrasonic method of Biodiesel production from Palm Kernel
O. K. Onanuga and J. O. Coker*
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative fuel derived from chemical reactors produced from palm kernel oil, is currently spreading like a wind dust in the air. It is considered as the fuel for the future without rise in global warming. It has advantages over the fossil fuel diesel as sustainability (renewable resources), ease of production, and availability of raw materials. The study examines the biodiesel produced through transesterification of palm kernel oil (1% fatty acid) with methanol using granulated sodium hydroxide as catalyst through ultrasonic method. The palm kernel oil biodiesel produced was characterized as alternative diesel fuel through standard tests (ASTM) for basic fuel properties such as viscosity, cloud point, pour point, flash point and specific gravity as well as economical feasibility for Nigeria. The result showed that 875g of palm kernel oil (1% fatty acid) with 175g of methanol using 13g of sodium hydroxide (granulated) subjected to ultrasonic method for 1 hour through transesterification process produced 96.23% of biodiesel and 16.89% of glycerol plus high excess methanol was allowed to settle for 6 hours. Two layers were observed containing unwashed biodiesel at the top and darker layers of glycerin. After washing the biodiesel with warm water, the cleaned, biodiesel was dried by heat to remove the moisture from and allowed to settle down. A bright colour biodiesel was obtained which was within the international standard for biodiesel fuel.
Keywords : ASTM, Biodiesel, Diesel fuel, Transesterification, Ultrasonic Method