Journal of Applied and Natural Science 4(2):291-296(2012)
Enrichment of various metals in Abelmoschus esculentus grown in wastewater irrigated soil area of Dehradun City, India
Chakresh Pathak, A. K. Chopra and Sachin Srivastava
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India Corresponding authors E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org Received: August 6, 2012; Revised received: September 29, 2012; Accepted: November 8, 2012
Abstract : The accumulation of metal contents in soil from wastewater (WW) irrigation is a cause of serious concern due to their potential accumulation in vegetables and food products growing in such areas. The results revealed the concentration of Pb (0.17±0.03 mg/l), Cu (0.10±0.04 mg/l), Zn (1.06±0.08 mg/l), Ni (0.08±0.02 mg/l), Cd (0.07±0.02 mg/l) and Cr (0.07±0.02 mg/l) in the WW of Bindal river used for irrigation of Abelmoschus esculentus. The maximum metal contents were observed for Pb (43.89±6.13 mg/kg), Cu (20.92±3.19 mg/kg), Zn (46.77±6.51 mg/kg), Ni (39.95±8.02 mg/kg), Cd (15.57±2.17 mg/kg) and Cr (125.70±23.01 mg/kg). The enrichment factors (EF) in WW irrigated soil were found to be in the order of Cd (2.46) > Cr (2.42) > Zn (1.67) > Cu (1.36) = Ni (1.36) > Pb (1.31). The concentration of Pb was maximum (57.99±1.54 mg/kg) in roots, Cu (33.91±2.13 mg/kg) in the leaves; Zn (81.70±2.99 mg/kg) in roots, Ni (86.10±3.19 mg/kg) in stem; Cd (20.39±1.99 mg/kg) and Cr (76.78±3.04 mg/kg) in leaves of A. esculentus. The EF values of 2-5 for Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and Cr except Zn for fruits, leaves and roots of A. esculentus showed moderate enrichment of these metals. The values for Cd and Cr showed moderate enrichment of the stem of this plant. The study concluded that the WW irrigation increased the metallic contents of soil, which in turn were accumulated in different parts of A. esculentus that may cause potential health risk in human beings.
Keywords : Abelmoschus esculentus, Enrichment factor, Heavy metals, Soil, Wastewater