Journal of Applied and Natural Science 1(1):1-7(2009)
Phytochemistry, antibacterial and anticoagulase activities of Sida acuta against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
J. P. Essien1, B. S. Antia2 and G. A. Ebong1*
1Department of Microbiology, 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017 Uyo, Nigeria
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The phytochemical, antibacterial and anticoagulase activities of Sida acuta against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The phytochemistry of the plant leaves revealed that S. acuta is laden with antioxidative compounds with remarkable concentrations of saponins (0.772 mg/100g), flavonoids (0.112 mg/100g), alkaloids (0.076 mg/100g) and tannins (0.0541mg/100g). Their presence conferred a strong bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus SS-1VC, Staph. aureus SS-2VM, Staph. aureus SS-3SW, Staph aureus SS-4OM, Staph. aureus SS-5BC Staph. aureus SS-6AF and Staph. aureus SS-7DS isolated from vaginal candidiosis, vaginal mycosis, septic wound, otitis media, buccal cavity, athletes foot and diarrheic stool respectively. Majority of the bacterium strains screened were sensitive to aqueous and methanol extracts of S. acuta leaves. All the strains were inhibited by the aqueous extract, but more susceptible were strains SS-2VM isolated from vaginal mycoses and SS-3SW from septic wound, which recorded 25mm and 24mm diameter of inhibition zones respectively, after treatment with 8.0mg/ml of the extract. However, much lower concentration (0.5mg/ml) of the extract was required to halt coagulase activity in both strains. The methanol leaf extract exhibited similar but stronger antibacterial and anticoagulase activities against the clinical isolates of Staph. aureus. Marked antibacterial inhibitory effects were observed against most strains tested but SS-6AF and SS-7DS (which exhibited comparatively lower susceptibility), with majority of the strains losing their anticoagulase producing potential at concentrations as low as 0.5mg/ml of alcoholic extract. The strong anticoagulase activity of S.acuta, and it’s efficacy in inhibiting coagulase elaboration by Staph aureus especially Staph. aureus SS-3SW isolated from septic wound forms the basis of it’s use in folk medicine for wound treatment.
Keywords : Phytochemistry, Antibacterial and Anticoagulase, Sida acuta,Staphylococcus aureus